Basic Concept of work Study. Work study is a process to know the preferred method and perform it. It is an systemic study to finding the preferred method doing the work. Now a days, work study is a popular subject in a garment industries. If you are not a textile industries student and want to work in a garment industries you must know the what is work study.

Work Study

Basic Concept of work Study

At first you know to what is work study. Work Study may be defined as the analysis a job for the purpose of Finding the preferred method of doing it and also determining the standard time to perform it by the preferred of given method.

According to British Standard Institution, “Work Study is the systematic study of an operation of process to ensure the best possible use of the human and material resources available.”

Basic Concept of work Study

According to definition of work study, we told that work study is the systematic study that ensure best possible use of an process by human and material resources. Work study help to know that a preferred method of doing our task.

Why Work Study?

Now a days, garment manufacturers, all over the world, think about “How to reduce the product cost” to be competitive in the global market.

Product cost depends on how effective the utilization of resources are. Main resources are Man, Machine, Material, Method and Money. Work Study is the technique to control these five resources for the maximum productivity. The prime aim is Improve the productivity.

Advantage of Work Study:

  • Uniform and improved production flow.
  • Higher Productivity.
  • Reduced Manufacturing Cost.
  • Fast and Accurate Delivery Date.
  • Better Employee-Employer Relationship.

Classification of Work Study:

Work Study may be classified in two types.

  1. Method Study.
  2. Work Measurement.

Work Measurement is two types.

  1. Time Study.
  2. Pr-determined Motion Time Study (PMTS).

Basic Concept of work Study

Method Study:

  • A method to establish one of the best way of doing tasks.
  • Method study can be defined as the procedure for systematic recording, analysis and critical examination of existing or proposed method of doing work for the purpose of development and application of easier and more effective method.

Method Study Procedure:

  1. Select the job on which method study is to be applied.
  2. Obtain information and record.
  3. Examine the information critically.
  4. Develop the most practical, economical and effective method by considering real limitations of the situation.
  5. Install the new method as standard practice.
  6. Maintain the standard practice by regular follow up.

What is Work Measurement?

Work Measurement may be defined as-

  • The application of different techniques to measure and establish the time required to complete a job by a qualified worker.
  • Work measurement may be used to determine the standard number of minutes that a qualified, properly trained, and experienced person should take to perform a specific task or operation when working at a normal pace.

Importance of Work Measurement

  • Determination of standard time.
  • Observation and reasoning for nonactive times.
  • Work measurement eliminates nonactive times in total time.
  • Work measurement is a tool that shows the behavior of management and workers.
  • Provide the basis for production planning and control for the choice of a better layout and for process planning for establishing inventory control system.
  • Set standards of machine utilization and labor performance this can be used for any of the above purposes and as a basis for incentive schemes.
  • To provide information for labor cost control and to enable standard costs to be fixed and maintained.

Techniques of Work Measurement:

There are many techniques to work measurement. Here we included four techniques.

  1. Time Study.
  2. PMTS ( predetermined motion time study).
  3. MTM (Methods Time Measurement).
  4. Work sampling.

We discuss about those techniques in here.

Time Study:

Time study is used to determine the time required by a qualified and well trained person working at a normal pace to do a specified task. A method created to determine the “correct time” it takes to complete a certain task.

  • Time study is used to measure work.
  • The result of time study is the time in minutes that a person needs to perform the job if he works at a normal or standard pace. This time is called the Standard Minute Value (SMV) for the operation.

If you find the SMV then you must be know the work cycle or cycle time. Other some important things that you must to know calculate the SMV. Here we included some important things.

Work Cycle

A work cycle is the sequence of elements which are required to perform a job or yield a unit of production.

A Work Cycle starts at the beginning of the first element of the operation or activity and continues to the same point in a repetition of the operation or activity. That is the start of the second cycle.

Qualified Worker

A qualified worker is one who has acquired the skill, knowledge and other attributes to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of quantity, quality and safety.

The qualified worker-

  • Achieves smooth and consistent movements.
  • Acquires rhythm.
  • Responds more rapidly to signals.
  • Anticipates difficulties and is more ready to overcome them.

Time Study Equipment:

The devices for measuring time are

  1. Stop watch.
  2. Motion picture camera.
Rating Factor

Different workers perform their job with different inefficiencies. Some workers are clever, they learn their job quickly and attain a very high efficiency. Some others may be ordinary and many others may be lenient to learn or may be dull. Workers widely vary in their performance. Thus ratting is the measure of speed with which an operator works. Here Speed means the effective speed of operation.

Performance (Rating) R= Predetermined Time/Actual Time.

Rating is the assessment of the workers rate of working relative observer’s concept of the rate corresponding to standard pace.

Rating is a technique used to assess the speed and effectiveness of and operator. It may take into account

  • Speed of movement.
  • Effort.
  • Effectiveness.
  • It is basically some additional time for needs ( drink water, cleaning fatigue and delays).
  • It can be given as a percent of work time.
  • Allowance are the interruptions that occur during the working day.
  • Personal Allowance: Drink water, going to wash room and clean up after operations.
  • Fatigue Allowance: Standing with a load, walking with a load, lifting a load, anxiety, monotony, temperature, sound, illumination etc.
  • Delay Allowance: Machinery is kept in repair, tool breakage, minor adjustment.
  • The normal time doesn’t contain any allowances for the worker.
  • It is impossible to work throughout day even though the most practicable, effective method has been developed.
  • Even under the best working method situation, the job will still demand some allowance.

Normal Time (Basic Time)

Normal Time=Average time*rating factor

How to Conduct Time Study?

When you conduct time study you should be follow this procedure.

  1. Select a specific product/style.
  2. Select the line.
  3. Observe the product flow/operation from input to output.
  4. Try to understand each operation.
  5. List down the operation break down.
  6. Take the cycle time of each operation.
  7. At the same time, assess the operation effective speed of work relative to the observer’s concept of “normal” speed. This is called performance Rating.
  8. Adjust the observed time by rating factor to obtain normal time for each cycle time.
  9. Add the suitable allowances to give standard time.
SMV Calculation


or, SMV=NT(1+Al)


NT= Normal Time.

Al= Allowance.

Example: Suppose a data were given below and Allowance is 20%.

Operation Avg. Cycle Time




Basic Time or


Shoulder Join .42 .90 (90%) .42*.90=.378
Sleeve Join .37 .80 (80%) .37*.80=.296
Side Seam .59 1.10  (110%) .59*1.10=.649
Body Hem .43 1  (100%) .43*1=.43



Shoulder Join SMV=.378(1+20%)=.4536 min.

Side Seam SMV=.649(1+20%)=.7788 min.

You can count this product total SMV. According to the following rule at first you count all parts SMV. Then you sum the all parts SMV. Yes it is the SMV of this product that you calculate.

Application of Work Study:
  • Production Target set up.
  • Developing effective methods and plans in scheduling/Pre-production Planning.
  • Improving existing methods.
  • Increasing labor utilization through line balancing/equal work load distribution by establishing time standards.
  • Production cost estimating.
  • Skill inventory (Data Bank) development.
  • SMV data bank.

Some Important Topic of Work Study:

Calculation of Efficiency-

Efficiency=SMV*Output ÷ Manpower*Available Time ×100%.

Line Target Set=(Manpower×Working Time×Efficiency%)÷SMV.

Hourly Capacity=60÷SMV.

Takt Time=Total available time÷Total customer demand.

Pitch Time=Total cycle time÷No. of workers.

Line Balancing=Pitch time÷Bottle Neck.

Takt Time

Takt is the German word uses to regulate the speed, beat or timing at which musicians ply. So, Takt time is “beat time, rate time or heart beat”. Lean production uses Takt time as the rate time that a completed product is finished.

How to use it?

First Step:

  • Calculate your demand.
  • Calculate your available time.

Second Step:

  • Calculate your Takt time.
  • Compare current operator cycle time against Takt time.
  • Identify steps to re-balance work.
  • Consider the inputs.
  • Regularly recalculate your Takt time.
Bottleneck Point

Bottleneck point is that point in the production line where output demand is more than the capacity of the operator.

  • It means the barrier of production.
  • To resist the flow.
  • To store of product.

Bottleneck point is called that point for which forward and backward production going to stop, make them idle and finally effect the whole line.

Way’s of solving Bottleneck Overflow Point:

  • Proper flow of work.
  • Method improvement.
  • Use of folder and attachment.
  • Machine speed and calibrations.
  • Share capacity with other operator.
  • Better operator allocation.
  • Quality issue.
  • Add additional manpower or machine.
  • Works for extra hours.

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